Everyone can agree that finding the ideal moisturizing gel in the huge number of available commercial cosmetics is literally like finding a needle in the haystack – mission impossible. Even the simplest of them holds so many ingredients that makes their effect on skin questionable and also makes one wonder about possible side effects. In DIY cosmetics one can develop a perfect recipe for a moisturizing gel by using the best ingredients in the right number. However, perfecting and refining the recipe can take time. The best solution is to use a DIY moisturizing gel from a reliable and verified source. It saves both time and money and it offers access to premium ingredients that are mixed in a transparent recipe based on scientific proof and certified experience.
Liposome Light Moisturizing Gel (LLMG) is an excellent, highly compatible,oil free gel with a liposome structure custom formulated and manufactured by a company with great experience in natural active formulations. Its main ingredients are phosphatidycholine (Lipo 75%), sclerotium gel and glycerin. Besides its great moisturizing properties and a smooth and light texture, LLMG comes with a great versatility. It can be mixed up to 10% with both lipo-soluble substances (such as oils) and non-lipo-soluble active ingredients (previously dissolved in water or Propanediol). The gel can virtually transformed and personalized for any type of skin and skin problem, maintaining its moisturizing properties while delivering active ingredients with efficiency.
are a revolutionary delivery mechanism developed in the past decades in order to enhance the delivery of active ingredients to the skin, especially its deeper layers. Bioavailability studies on targeted drug delivery showed that most of the time, active ingredients in topical formulations fail to reach the deeper layers of the dermis and hypodermis and implicitly the skin organelles located there. The main reason of the poor penetration of actives through the skin is the barrier function. The physical component of the barrier function, the lipid barrier, is a layer of sebaceous oils and fats that cover the skin surface, protecting it from external aggressors such as chemicals, pollution, viruses, bacteria and others. Due to its fatty nature, the lipid barrier is hydrophobic, blocking aqueous solution from penetrating the skin and reach beyond stratum corneum – the first layer of keratinocytes. While it is more permissive to fatty formulations, the lipid barrier still affects the delivery of active ingredients affecting bioavailability on the targeted site. While alcohols and other surfactants can lower the barrier function and enhance permeability they also can harm the skin by causing rashes, allergic reactions and lowering the protection against external aggressors. That is why, in the previous years, research aimed to identify new methods that allow and enhance barrier penetration without affecting the barrier function .
represented a immense breakthrough in the penetration enhancers field. Liposomes are vesicular carrier system that allows the delivery of active ingredients beyond the lipid barrier, to the deeper levels of the skin. Liposome theory is based on the principle that any active ingredient can be efficiently delivered beyond stratum corneum through the active molecules are covered in a lipid (phospholipids are the most efficient) membrane. Simply put, the lipid vesicles containing actives behave like microscopic Trojan horses. The lipids in the vesicle membrane “speak” the same language as the lipids from the skin barrier, thus encountering to resistance when advancing to the deeper layers of the skin. Graphically put, liposomes are microscopic bubbles made out of phospholipids that can be produced to contain any type of active ingredient or drug that needs to be delivered to the skin . Not only are liposomes excellent carriers for both hydrophilic and lipophilic molecules, but they can also be varied in size thus accommodating any type of molecule. Furthermore, liposomes also act as stabilizers by successfully encapsulating volatile or instable active ingredients. Studies have shown that liposomes also help in reducing skin irritation by sustaining the release of the drugs and active to the right location while hydrating and moisturizing the epidermis. Liposomes enable and enhance penetration to the dermis and hypodermis where the sebaceous glands and hair follicles are located being the ideal vehicles to deliver active ingredients meant to treat specific ailments such as acne or alopecia .
Fig.1 Liposome vesicle carrier principle 
Liposome Light Moisturizing Gel (LLMG) has a liposomic structure. This means that it is not only a great moisturizer that goes beyond the stratum corneum cells but also that is an efficient vehicle for other active ingredients. Due to its composition and its vesicular system it can enhance penetration and ensure delivery to the deep layers of the skin.
The main three ingredients of Liposome Light Moisturizing Gel (LLMG) are phosphatidycholine (Lipo 75%), sclerotium gel and glycerin.
is one of the most effective and widely used phospholipids in obtaining liposomes. Phosphatidylcholines are member of the lecithin group and a type of phospholipids that incorporate a salt called choline. Phosphatidylcholines are such an important part of the lecithin group that most of the times their names are used as synonyms. They are natural, ecologically safe, biodegradable and generally recognized as safe. Phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) is a key constituent of cell membranes and is usually obtained from natural sources. Lecithin, as phospholipids, has amphiphillic properties, meaning that they can easily dissolve both water-loving and fat-loving substances. Besides being one of the best liposome forming solutions, lecithin is also a potent emulsifier and stabiliser . Clinical studies have shown that lecithin liposomes have very low acute and cumulative irritant potential . Lecithin is also highly effective in repairs dry skin and treating dryness related conditions such as rashes and eczema.
Because it naturally occurs in the structure of biological membranes such as cell or organelles membranes phosphatidylcholine is highly compatible with the skin. By using it as a vesicle membrane that encloses an active molecule, safe passage through the stratum corneum to the dermis and even capillaries is attained. Phosphatidylcholine practically disguises the active ingredient by wrapping it in a lipid layer that is recognized by the skin barrier and allow to pass. The disguise is particularly effective when the active ingredient is water soluble. Because the lipid barrier is practically impermeable to water-based solutions using a liposomic vesicle delivery system is the perfect solution. The double phosphatidylcholine layers enclose the water-based solution allowing it to traverse the epidermis and reach the dermis.
The quality of the phosphatidylcholines is very important in obtaining efficient liposomes. Not only that using a high quality source for phosphatidylcholine ensures the optimum characteristics of the liposomes such as size and stability but it also guarantees the use of a clean, healthy ingredient that is highly compatible with the skin. The importance of the phospholipid used for liposome production can be compared to soap bubbles. You can produce bubbles using about any type of soap but the size and the lifespan of the bubbles highly depends of the quality of the soap. In the same manner, in order to obtain the best liposomal structure for skin delivery, a quality source must be used. Liposome Light Moisturizing Gel contains a premium, highly expensive source of phosphatidylcholine (Lipo 75%) thus ensuring that it delivers the best liposomal structure and efficient delivery of active ingredients.
Sclerotium gum is a natural jellifying agent obtained through fermentation from Sclerotium, which refers to a phase in the lifecycle of some parasitic fungi. The sclerotia has a very high content of active ingredients and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). EPS are high molecular mass polysaccharides that have a key role in determining the extracellular environment in a tissue . The specific polysaccharide in sclerotium gel is called scleroglucan. Due its polymerization the gum is able to form highly stable gels. When compared to other agents sclerotium gum proved superior as a stabilizer and more stable with temperature variation. It ranked highest in stability out of 140 polymers maintaining its viscosity at 90% after 500 days at 90 degrees . When used in a topical formulation sclerotium gum enables the production of gels with various viscosities though polymerization. In this way, the content becomes homogenous and the active ingredients are evenly distributed in the mixture.
Scleroglucans are beta glucans which are actives with multiple benefits for the skin. Studies have shown that beta glucans have potent antioxidant properties and enhance penetration, moisture and contribute to an overall skin appearance and feeling . Scleroglucan is also an immune modulator that enhances the production and activity of immunity cells. In vitro studies showed scleroglucan to be one the most potent anti-mutagen and anti-tumor agent amongst exo-polysaccharides. Also, in-vivo researched proved scleroglucan to be the most powerful beta-D-glucan when it comes to anti-microbial, anti-tumor, anti-neoplastic, and immune-stimulant activities . In topical treatments the potent effects of scleroglucan are useful in preventing skin cell mutation and proliferation and also to support wound healing by macrophage activation. all these effects are useful in fighting keratocytes mutation and malignancy proliferation. . Scleroglucan also acts as a support for the barrier function by stimulating and promoting lipid formation. Several studies have concluded that scleroglucan enhances the levels of ceramides and cholesterol in the skin and directly support the lipid barrier. As a beta glucan, it also prevents water loss through the epidermis thus acting like a prophylactic against dehydration, and skin dryness .
The third main ingredient Glycerine (Glycerol) is one of the most widely used moisturizing agents both commercial and DIY preparations. Glycerine is a simple sugar alcohol that contains three hydroxyl groups which are considered the main responsible for the hygroscopic (water retaining) nature. Glycerine is extensively used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical topical preparations especially as a humectant, moisturizer and as a carrier for other active ingredients. Because the structure of glycerine is the core of any triglyceride it has a very high compatibility with skin cells and the lipid barrier. The compatibility of glycerine with the human skin is so elevated that skin grafts are preserved using glycerine . Glycerine is superior to the majority of humectants. In maintains and increases skin hydration through its hygroscopic action. Glycerine molecules attract water to the stratum corneum and even deeper, reducing TEWL (trans-epidermal water loss). With its high compatibility, great availability and moisturizing efficiency glycerine is the most used vehicle for actives delivery in pharmacological and cosmetic studies.
Studies have shown that glycerine has various actions of the on the epidermis including improvement of stratum corneum hydration, skin barrier function and skin mechanical properties, inhibition of the stratum corneum lipid phase transition, protection against irritating stimuli, and acceleration of wound-healing processes. Even an antimicrobial effect has been demonstrated. Topical application of glycerol-containing products improves skin properties in diseases characterized by xerosis and impaired epidermal barrier function, such as atopic dermatitis . Other studies showed that comparing to water, paraffin oil and ethanol, glycerine is superior in the duration of its effects on the mechanics of the skin . Furthermore, glycerine is effective in treating cosmetic induced excessive dryness, where chemical ingredients such as sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) can cause irritation and increased water loss. In the treatment with the 10% of glycerine its action inhibited the SLS-induced elevation of TEWL and moderated the irritant-induced increase in dermal blood flow and in the number of leucocyte-endothelial interactions. All concentrations of glycerine improved hydration and prevented the accumulation of lymphocytes near the treatment site. The expression of interleukin-1 beta and of tumour necrosis factor-alpha were significantly decreased by the 10% glycerol treatment .
Concluding, the Liposome Light Moisturizing Gel contains not one but three main ingredients with proved efficiency in increasing skin moisture, preventing excessive TEWL and protecting the lipid barrier. Even more, the gel can be used as a vesicle carrier for other active ingredients because the liposomes obtained by using high grade phosphatidylcholine will ensure their efficient delivery to the dermis. Incrementing oils or actives in the gel can easily be done with a simple sonic clearer and manual stirring, enabling DIY production of high quality liposome carrier system that can be customized to deliver the ideal combination of ingredients to the skin.