Carla, Many medications can be and are applied topically by prescription. With that in mind, realize that this particular ingredient is wonderful but understand that this is indeed one of those that may create sensitivity with those already using topical hormones or just use sparingly and see how you respond. Sorry for the very late response..... ...»
Im 45 years old; average looking skin for my age. Applied a small pea sized amount of Sea Kelp Bioferment to my face full strength in the am after washing my face of previous night makeup.; let face "dry". Then aplied my foundation as always. Noticed my thick, heavy foundation applied more easily and smooth. Keep in mind this is DAY TWO of me using this. TWO women at work ( separate departments) commented how wonderful my face looked! One specifically came up to me and asked what I was.. ...»
I am following the moisturizing cream + Zinc dispersion recipe and I am extremely satisfied. I do allow for a little time for it to absorb in & then I dab off anything that I feel looks a little white - but that's because I initially use a fairly thick coating on myself. I use a bit of foundation at times on top and there are no issues as far as weird colors or texture issues. I am so grateful for this entire website as a one-stop-shop for such effective skin care products, and now we can.. ...»
I purposely waited a few months before writing my review. I am happy to report this product is great! I combined the DMAE product with the base creams resulting in tighter skin and lessened wrinkles, including areas around underarms... ...»
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Squalane is a form of squalene, a natural component of sebum [oil] that acts as a barrier for the skin. It is structurally similar to many natural compounds that benefit the skin, such as β-carotene, and vitamins A, D, E, and K. Squalane’s most noted function is as an anti-oxidant. It depletes the amount of free radicals from UV rays that can cause damage to the skin. Squalane also moisturizes and hydrates, decreasing dryness, itching, and redness. With these characteristics, it restores barrier function to the skin. It can act as a detoxifier and may play a role in acne treatment. Squalane is also used to increase the absorption of preparations into the skin.
Key benefits of Squalane Olive Oil in skin care:
Anti-oxidant [1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 13]
Moisturizing and hydration [1, 2, 3, 6, 10]
Sun damage protection [6, 7, 10]
Increases skin elasticity [3, 6]
Anti-androgenic alopecia 
Restore barrier function 
Reduce fine lines and wrinkles 
Squalane Olive Oil is highly stable against oxidation.
Squalane is a compound that has been used in traditional medicine for decades . It was first extracted from shark liver oil where it is found in high amounts. It is also found in olive oil, the preferred source of squalene. Squalene is thought to be a source of the overall health of Mediterranean populations that consume large amounts of olive oil . Squalene is a natural compound found in skin surface lipids, compounds that are “waxy” in nature and protect the natural skin barrier . It is a triterpene, a long chain of hydrogen and carbon atoms.
Squalane and squalene have nearly identical chemical structures. Squalane is produced by hydrogenating squalene, which means hydrogen atoms are added to the structure . This makes it a stable, low-toxic compound useful for cosmetic purposes. Overall, squalane and squalene have the same therapeutic properties, the only difference is squalane is more stable.
Squalene is a chemical precursor to cholesterol and steroids used by the body. This makes it an important biological regulatory compound . It is structurally similar to β-carotene, coenzyme Q10, and vitamins A, E, K, and D, which have been shown to be beneficial to skin [1, 3, 6]. Squalene also regulates the production of vitamin D.
Squalene, the un-hydrogenated form, makes up 13% of sebum [oil] secreted from the skin with the highest concentrations on the face and scalp. Sebum levels decrease over age, with the most drastic decrease in post-menopausal women . Additionally, squalene levels have been shown to decrease in blood serum during aging . Thus, supplementation of squalane may help reverse or prevent signs of aging, particularly photoaging, chronic skin damage due to excessive sun exposure. Altered sebum composition also plays a role in acne and decreased squalene levels have been associated with antihistamines, commonly taken to treat allergies .
It is thought that squalene in the sebum [oil] is a natural protective agent. Squalene produced naturally by the skin protects against UV skin damage from many sources, including sunlight . UV light is related to inflammation and aging . Topical application of squalane is believed to protect the skin from sun damage .
Squalane is primarily studied for its anti-oxidant activity . The significant amount of squalene in olives is thought to contribute to the anti-oxidant effect of olive oil. In vitro studies show squalene quenches harmful free-radical oxygen, thus reducing damage to the skin . The anti-oxidant activity of squalane has proven therapeutic for decreasing redness. A decrease in anti-oxidant activity is also thought to increase acne .
Squalane hydrates and softens the skin . It reverses skin water loss . It is quickly absorbed by the skin and increases skin suppleness . In a clinical study, topical application of a gel containing squalane decreased skin dryness and itching . In another clinical study, a cream containing squalane moisturized the skin and prevented wrinkle formation . A cream with squalene was also used to mimic the natural skin barrier in order to help those with skin barrier deficiencies .
Squalene has immune-stimulating properties . It increases cellular and immune system activity  Also, shark liver oil containing large amounts of squalene was shown to have anti-bacterial properties and reduce the symptoms of eczema, an inflammatory skin disease . It is also a natural detoxifier .
Squalane is also used to increase the absorption of drugs, as it is stable and non-toxic [1, 12]. It increases the stability of mixtures and increase penetration into the skin. In a study using mice, squalene was shown to open hair follicles, increasing absorption . Allowing higher absorption into hair follicles may help treat premature hair loss.
Storage: Cool, dry place. Do not freeze. Keep away from light and moisture! Country of Origin: Spain
 C.B. Fox, “Squalene Emulsions for Parenteral Vaccine and Drug Delivery,” Molecules, vol. 14, pp. 3286- 3312, 2009.
 S. Guibert, M. Batteau, P. Jame, and T. Kuhn, “Detection of Squalene and Squalane Origin with Flash Elemental Analyzer and Delta V Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer,” Thermo Scientific Application Note 30276, 2013.
 Z.R. Huang, Y.K. Lin, and J.Y. Fang, “Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related Compounds: Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology,” Molecules, vol. 14, pp. 540-554, 2009.
 S. Kato, H. Taira, H. Aoshima, Y. Saitoh, and N. Miwa, “Clinical evaluation of fullerene-C60 dissolved in squalane for anti-wrinkle cosmetics,” J Nanosci Nanotechnol., vol. 10, issue 10, pp. 6769-74, October 2010.
 G.S. Kelly, “Squalene and its potential clinical uses,” Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 4, issue 1, pp. 29-36, 1999.
 S.K. Kim and F. Karadeniz, “Biological Importance and Applications of Squalene and Squalane,” Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, volume 65, chapter 14, pp. 223-232, 2012.
 Y. Kohno, Y. Egawa, S. Itoh, S. Nagaoka, M. Takahashi, and K. Mukai, “Kinetic study of quenching reaction of singlet oxygen and scavenging reaction of free radical by squalene in n-butanol,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1256, pp. 52-56, 1995.
 Y.K. Lin, S.A. Al-Suwayeh, Y.L. Leu, F.M. Shen, and J.Y. Fang, “Squalene-Containing Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Promote Percutaneous Absorption and Hair Follicle Targeting of Diphencyprone for Treating Alopecia Areata,” Pharm Res, vol. 30, pp. 435–446, 2013.
 E. Makrantonaki, R. Ganceviciene, and C. Zouboulis, “An update on the role of the sebaceous gland in the pathogenesis of acne,” Dermato-Endocrinology, vol. 3, issue 1, pp. 41-49; January 2011.
 R. W. Owen, W. Mier, A. Giacosa, W. E. Hull, B. Spiegelhalder, and H. Bartsch, “Phenolic compounds and squalene in olive oils: the concentration and antioxidant potential of total phenols, simple phenols, secoiridoids, lignans and squalene,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 38, pp. 647-659, 2000.
 H. Relas, H. Gylling, R.A. Rajaratnam, and T.A. Miettinen, “Postprandial Retinyl Palmitate and Squalene Metabolism Is Age Dependent,” J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, vol. 55, issue 11, pp. 515- 521, 2000.
 L.T.S. Tjan, “Squalene for Skin Care,” Science for Life, 2001-2011.
 P. Viola and M. Viola, “Virgin olive oil as a fundamental nutritional component and skin protector” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 27, issue 2, pp. 159-165, March 2009.
 C. C. Zouboulis and A. Boschnakow, “Chronological ageing and photoageing of the human sebaceous gland,” Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, vol. 26, pp. 600-607, 2001.
BulkActives are DIY skin care suppliers of skin actives, cosmetic ingredients, cosmeceuticals, active ingredients, and standardized botanical extracts for diy skin care products and homemade cosmetics.
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