Supplier of: skin actives, cosmetic ingredients, cosmeceuticals, active ingredients, and skin care ingredients, for DIY skin care and cosmetics, and homemade skin care products.
Excellent base Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE emulsion! It went very well for me and my daughter, she has atopic dermatitis. Literally on the third day of applying the cream (which is made up of Multi Lamellar Base Cream V2 Carrier Oil Free, NO Polymer 60%, 10% black currant oil, rice bran oil 5%, 1% of the complex of ceramides and water), the skin of my daughter got clean and healthy. I have noticeably narrowed pores, face was moist and disappeared on my forehead shine. Now Mul.. ...»
I have a blind faith of this Pre Liposome Microemulsion, especially it is made in Japan & of Squalane & Lecithin which I am fond of. I mixed it with Palmitoyl oligopeptide and palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 peptides liposome emulsion & some other water actives like Glucosamine, Niacinamide, Glutathione etc and the serum was very smooth and moisturizing. As it claims, it penetrates into the skin very well. I will mix it with oil soluble actives in my next batch. .. ...»
This is an excellent additive for increased absorption into the skin. I personally incorporate it with the ceramide lamellar crystal emulsion and multi lamellar base cream V2. The final product delivers a soothing, calming, super moisturizing liquid that penetrates the skin and helps the healing of severe skin issues such as mine (ichthyosis, keratosis). I highly recommend this formulation for those who are not getting any relief from other products and prescription topicals. My skin is finally .. ...»
Just recently ordered this and LOVE! Green Tea EGCG truly is one of the most fantastic skincare actives out there. Very difficult to find good quality product (90%) and even harder to actually solubilize it! Love that it comes in pre-dissolved solution. I enjoy adding it at 1% (so 11% sol) to my serum formulations containing Niacinamide 5% + NAG 3%. Excellent for oily acne prone skin. *Only gripe... because the Pre-Dissolved Solution is SO heavy in propanediol (10 parts Propanediol for 1 part E.. ...»
Wonderful base cream! Only multi-lamellar structured cream I've found on the market. Cream itself is lightweight (no oil) yet very conditioning/hydrating. Easily accepts water-soluble active ingredients as well as oil-soluble ones. I've even pushed the additional ingred % up to 20 (meaning 80% this cream, 20% added) without any separation issues. Ideal base cream for delivering actives. Personal favorite recipe calls for 5% straight Grapeseed Oil with 5% SebumREG oil active + Panthenol 1% + E Ac.. ...»
excellence product, very good and made my skin soft and smooth just like baby's skin. Thank you john.. ...»
Im 45 years old; average looking skin for my age. Applied a small pea sized amount of Sea Kelp Bioferment to my face full strength in the am after washing my face of previous night makeup.; let face "dry". Then aplied my foundation as always. Noticed my thick, heavy foundation applied more easily and smooth. Keep in mind this is DAY TWO of me using this. TWO women at work ( separate departments) commented how wonderful my face looked! One specifically came up to me and asked what I was.. ...»
Jessie Sandford
The Pre-dissolved solution is excellent. Ferulic Acid is an amazing skincare ingredient (potent antioxidant, protects other sensitive antioxidants from light degradation, UV protection) but is absolutely ineffective if it isn't solubilized correctly. Makes adding to any Serum Base or w/o emulsion easy. Love using it (at 6%; so active 0.5%) with the Resveratrol Fluid (10%; active 1%) and Green Tea Extr for potent nighttime brightening treatment... ...»
Carla, Many medications can be and are applied topically by prescription. With that in mind, realize that this particular ingredient is wonderful but understand that this is indeed one of those that may create sensitivity with those already using topical hormones or just use sparingly and see how you respond. Sorry for the very late response..... ...»
Many thanks for the Silicone DM. This product is lovely quality; it is light, silky, and leaves no residue at all. I use it in the base recipe for a mouldable polymer that I then use to make a simulated 'Amber' for bead making. At the end of this process I have a silky, translucent polymer plus the most gorgeous hands in the studio ! My thanks again, Helen.. ...»
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Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE Emulsion

Ceramides are a type of lipid that is abundant in skin tissue, where it exerts both structural and signaling functions. Its structural function includes maintaining the barrier function and retaining water content and hence integrity of the skin. Its signaling function includes regulating the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of the cells. Ceramides have been used to treat skin conditions that are a result of disrupted barrier function, such as atopic dermatitis, irritant/allergic contact dermatitis, and aged skin, and they might be used against skin cancer as well. Ceramides extracted from plant cells are superior in terms of safety and toxicity and are currently being explored. BulkActives sells safe ceramides, extracted from plant cells, we do NOT sell cermides extracted from the bovine central nervous system. It is recommended that Ceramides are used in combination withCholesterol NF and Natural Fatty Acids at a ratio of 3:1:1  ceramides, cholesterols, and free fatty acids. Ceramides are used in Elizabeth Arden products, Ceramides in a Liquid Crystal Emulsion are used in Atopalm products.

Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsion is a stable pre emulsion base containing ceramide 2, ceramide 3, ceramide 6II, and phytosteryl isostearate.  Forms lamellar liquid crystal structure which provides enhanced delivery of the Ceramide 2, 3, 6II in to the skin, moisturize and nourishes the intercellular matrix, and additionally stabilizes the ceramides when diluted with water. after formulaton.

NOTE: To assist you with solubility issues, we now also sell Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE Emulsion as a standardized pre-dissolved solution. Just add the liquid to your cream and mix well.

Key benefits of ceramides in skin care:

  • Moisturizing and hydration [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29]
  • Restore barrier function [24 ][25] [26] [27] [28] [29]
Product Code: BulkActives
Reward Points: 13
CAS#: 661-19-8, 95461-64-6, 25383-99-7
Net weight: 12g / 0.43oz, 50g / 1.76oz, 100g
Standardized Powder 50g - Options Out of Stock
Standardized preDissolved solution 100g - Options In Stock
Standardized Powder 12g - Options In Stock
Price: $27.90
Reward Points: 1310

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Ceramides in skin care

Ceramides are sphingoid and fatty-acids-containing molecules that are found in virtually every tissue, where they exert structural functions and participate in important signaling pathways.[1][2] Contrary to the small amount present in other tissues, stratum corneum (the outermost layer of the skin) contains relatively high level of ceramides, 40-50% of the total lipids.[1][2] There are 11 subclasses of ceramide species identified from human stratum corneum.[3] Ceramide 1, 2, 5, 10, and 11 have sphingosine base, ceramide 3, 6, and 9 have phytosphingosine base, and ceramide 4, 7, and 8 have 6-hydroxysphingosine base.[3] There is also a new ceramide recently found, possessing a dihydrosphingosine base.[4] There is little discussion on the differences between subclasses, but ceramides with longer chain fatty acids appear to have stronger structural roles due to their ability to pack tighter.[5]

ceramides in skin careStratum corneum, once thought as a passive barrier composed of dead cells, has now been recognized for at least five functional roles: immune response, antioxidant barrier, antimicrobial through certain peptides, photo-damage protection, and permeability maintenance.[6]

It is helpful to think of the stratum corneum as bricks and mortar, with the bricks being the corneocytes (the “dead” cells) and mortar being the lipid bilayers.[7] The intactness of the lipid layers determines the barrier properties, and ceramides, together with cholesterols and fatty acids in these lipid layers, play a critical role in maintaining water content and permeability.[7]

Diseases associated with water barrier dysfunction such as atopic dermatitis/eczema, irritant/contact dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, acne, xerosis, dandruff, and ichthyosis are characterized by reduced ceramide content or altered ceramide profile,[2][6][7][8] largely due to abnormal enzymatic activities involved in ceramide metabolism. For example, in atopic dermatitis, there is a mark decrease in ceramide 1 and 3 and hence water loss.[2][7] In psoriasis, there is a decrease in ceramide 1, 3, 4, 5II, 6I, and 7, accompanied by an increase in ceramide 2I, 2II, and 5I, with a net result of water loss.[2][7]

In healthy skin, disruption of the epidermal barrier (e.g. change in pH, UV irradiation, etc.) which induces water loss across the skin would lead to increases of ceramides and other lipids (both from the lipid store and through new synthesis) and partially restore the water homeostasis within a few hours.[3][6] But in situations where the enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism are dysfunctional, this mechanism is impaired and can lead to decreased elasticity, reduced pliability, cracking, scaling in addition to water loss.[9] Ceramide content loss also increases naturally with aging[7][10] and during winter times.[10] It is hypothesized that supplying ceramide topically would replenish ceramide to a level necessary for proper water barrier and skin function.

Treating acetone[11] or detergent-scaled[12] skin with stratum corneum lipids improved the water-retention function, and among the components present in the lipid mixture, ceramides are the most effective ones. Ceramide can repair the mechanically-induced dry skin.[13] Synthetic ceramide compounds also can repair the mechanically[14] and chemically-induced[15][14] dry skin. However, there are reports showing that ceramides need to be combined with cholesterol and fatty acids to be beneficial[16][17][18][19][6][20], and standalone treatments are not often effective.[21][22][17][23][19][20] Nevertheless, ceramides have been effective at treating atopic dermatitis in children[24][25] and adults[26][27][28], irritant/allergic contact dermatitis[28], as well as repairing barrier function in aged skin.[29]  

The signaling roles of ceramides in epidermis include proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death), through which ceramides have been shown to regulate normal skin cells including keratinocytes and melanocytes.[1] Ceramides might be used against skin cancer because abnormal ceramide level and profile have been found in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma[30] and synthetic ceramides have been shown to promote differentiation and suppress proliferation of human squamous cell carcinoma cell line.[31]

Although using natural ceramides seems more logical, there are some problems associated with it. Cheaper and naturally occurring ceramides are usually extracted from bovine central nervous system, and this raises both ethical and safety concerns (e.g. mad cow disease).[32] Natural ceramides can also be toxic if in excess, such as inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis.[33][34] The toxicity is not observed when using synthetic ceramides.[35] Synthetic ceramides are gaining more popularity due to its ability to overcome these issues. BulkActives sells safe, synthetic ceramides, extracted from plant cells, we do NOT sell natural cermides extracted from the bovine central nervous system.

Functions of Ceramides in Skin Care
  • Ceramide 2: Improves water balance. Improves barrier  function  of the skin
  • Ceramide 3: Improves water balance. Restores damaged skin. Protects the skin
  • Ceramide 6II: Increases desquamation without irritation. Improves skin smoothness  

 Ceramide Levels in Skin

 AGE   Hands Ceramide Level
 21 - 30 years
31 - 40 years
41 - 50 years
 100 %
  78 %
  63 %
 AGE  Face Ceramide Level
21 - 30 years
31 - 40 years
41 - 50 years
 100 %
  62 %
  37 %
Source: A.V. Rawlings et al. in Biocosmetics-Skin aging, IFSCC, vol. I, 31-45 (1993).

The Relationship of Ceramides in Skin Diseases

Diseases Ceramide Decrease
Psoriasis Ceramide 1, Ceramide 3, Ceramide 6
Ichthyosis Ceramide 1, Ceramide 6
Acne (vulgaris) Ceramide 1 through 6
Atopic dermatitis Ceramide 1 through 6
Surfactant-induced dermatitis Ceramide 3

About Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsion in Skin Care

Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsion maintains the stability of the active ingredients for a very long period but it increases the permeation and accumulation of the amount of the active ingredients to the skin. This reduces skin damage and irritation by its recovering and/or maintaining functions of the skin barrier.
In addition, delivery systems for skincare ingredients should not foster deep permeation because certain ingredients can induce severe side effects if they flow and circulate in our vascular systems. But Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsion is proven to permeate only above the dermis layers.
Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsion also helps skin recover moisture and suppleness by replenishing lipid components. This moisturized and supple condition of the skin aids in the transfer of other stable active materials comfortably to where they are needed.
Lamellar Liquid Crystal Emulsion also has a very similar structure to the natural lipid lamellar layers of our skin which play an important role known as skin barrier function. This skin barrier function keeps our skin supple and elastic by maintaining the moisture balance, but it tends to deteriorate with age.
NOTE: To assist you with solubility issues, we now also sell Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE Emulsion as a standardized pre-dissolved solution. Just add the liquid to your cream and mix well.

Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE Emulsion Standardized Powder

CAS No.:661-19-8, 95461-64-6, 25383-99-7,100403-19-8
INCI: Behenyl Alcohol、Polyglyceryl-10 Pentastearate、Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate、ceramide NP、Ceramide NG, Ceramide AP, Phytosteryl Isostearate
Source: Plants
Appearance: white powder
Solubility: Add in oil phase and dissolve at 70℃
                  High speed mixer should be required when amount is more than 0.5%
Suggested percentage:0.5% to 3%
Storage: Cool, dry place. Do not freeze. Keep away from light and moisture!

Country of origin: Japan
Origin of Components:
  • Palm, Palm Kernel: Philippines, Malaysia
  • Rapeseed: Europe, Canada
  • Soybean: Japan, USA, Brazil

Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE Emulsion Standardized Pre Dissolved Solution - 10%

Assay:10% Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE Emulsion
CAS#: 29806-73-3, 661-19-8, 95461-64-6, 25383-99-7,100403-19-8
INCI: ethylhexyl palmitate, Behenyl Alcohol、Polyglyceryl-10 Pentastearate、Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate、ceramide NP、Ceramide NG, Ceramide AP, Phytosteryl Isostearate
Appearance: liquid

Solubility: add to cream
Suggested percentages:
10% solution gives 1% Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE Emulsion content in final product.
30% solution gives 3% Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE Emulsion content in final product.
50% solution gives 5% Ceramide 2, 3, 6II Lamellar Liquid Crystal PRE Emulsion content in final product.

Storage: Store in fridge, do not freeze.
Country of origin: Japan
Origin of Components:
  • Palm, Palm Kernel: Philippines, Malaysia
  • Rapeseed: Europe, Canada
  • Soybean: Japan, USA, Brazil
Country of manufacture: Taiwan

[1]       Y. Uchida, “Ceramide signaling in mammalian epidermis,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta, vol. 1841, no. 3, pp. 453–462, Mar. 2014.
[2]       M. J. Choi and H. I. Maibach, “Role of ceramides in barrier function of healthy and diseased skin,” Am. J. Clin. Dermatol., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 215–223, 2005.
[3]       Y. Mizutani, S. Mitsutake, K. Tsuji, A. Kihara, and Y. Igarashi, “Ceramide biosynthesis in keratinocyte and its role in skin function,” Biochimie, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 784–790, Jun. 2009.
[4]       J. van Smeden, L. Hoppel, R. van der Heijden, T. Hankemeier, R. J. Vreeken, and J. A. Bouwstra, “LC/MS analysis of stratum corneum lipids: ceramide profiling and discovery,” J. Lipid Res., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1211–1221, Jun. 2011.
[5]       K.-M. Joo, G.-W. Nam, S. Y. Park, J. Y. Han, H.-J. Jeong, S.-Y. Lee, H. K. Kim, and K.-M. Lim, “Relationship between cutaneous barrier function and ceramide species in human stratum corneum,” J. Dermatol. Sci., vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 47–50, Oct. 2010.
[6]       L. Kircik, F. Hougeir, and J. Bikowski, “Atopic dermatitis, and the role for a ceramide-dominant, physiologic lipid-based barrier repair emulsion,” J. Drugs Dermatol. JDD, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1024–1027, Sep. 2013.
[7]     L. Coderch, O. López, A. de la Maza, and J. L. Parra, “Ceramides and skin function,” Am. J. Clin. Dermatol., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 107–129, 2003.
[8]       C. R. Harding, A. E. Moore, J. S. Rogers, H. Meldrum, A. E. Scott, and F. P. McGlone, “Dandruff: a condition characterized by decreased levels of intercellular lipids in scalp stratum corneum and impaired barrier function,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 294, no. 5, pp. 221–230, Jul. 2002.
[9]       A. M. Goldstein and W. Abramovits, “Ceramides and the stratum corneum: structure, function, and new methods to promote repair,” Int. J. Dermatol., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 256–259, Apr. 2003.
[10]    J. Rogers, C. Harding, A. Mayo, J. Banks, and A. Rawlings, “Stratum corneum lipids: the effect of ageing and the seasons,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 288, no. 12, pp. 765–770, Nov. 1996.
[11]     G. Imokawa, S. Akasaki, M. Hattori, and N. Yoshizuka, “Selective recovery of deranged water-holding properties by stratum corneum lipids,” J. Invest. Dermatol., vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 758–761, Dec. 1986.
[12]     G. Imokawa, S. Akasaki, Y. Minematsu, and M. Kawai, “Importance of intercellular lipids in water-retention properties of the stratum corneum: induction and recovery study of surfactant dry skin,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 281, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 1989.
[13]     M. Kucharekova, J. Schalkwijk, P. C. M. Van De Kerkhof, and P. G. M. Van De Valk, “Effect of a lipid-rich emollient containing ceramide 3 in experimentally induced skin barrier dysfunction,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 331–338, Jun. 2002.
[14]     K. Lintner, P. Mondon, F. Girard, and C. Gibaud, “The effect of a synthetic ceramide-2 on transepidermal water loss after stripping or sodium lauryl sulfate treatment: an in vivo study,” Int. J. Cosmet. Sci., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15–26, Feb. 1997.
[15]     G. Imokawa, S. Akasaki, A. Kawamata, S. Yano, and N. Takaishi, “Water-retaining function in the stratum corneum and its recovery properties by synthetic pseudoceramides,” J Soc Cosmet Chem, vol. 40, pp. 273–285, 1989.
[16]     L. Yang, M. Mao-Qiang, M. Taljebini, P. M. Elias, and K. R. Feingold, “Topical stratum corneum lipids accelerate barrier repair after tape stripping, solvent treatment and some but not all types of detergent treatment,” Br. J. Dermatol., vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 679–685, Nov. 1995.
[17]     K. De Paepe, D. Roseeuw, and V. Rogiers, “Repair of acetone- and sodium lauryl sulphate-damaged human skin barrier function using topically applied emulsions containing barrier lipids,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. JEADV, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 587–594, Nov. 2002.
[18]     M. de Pera, L. Coderch, J. Fonollosa, A. de la Maza, and J. L. Parra, “Effect of internal wool lipid liposomes on skin repair,” Skin Pharmacol. Appl. Skin Physiol., vol. 13, no. 3–4, pp. 188–195, Aug. 2000.
[19]     L. Coderch, M. De Pera, J. Fonollosa, A. De La Maza, and J. Parra, “Efficacy of stratum corneum lipid supplementation on human skin,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 139–146, Sep. 2002.
[20]     M. Man MQ, K. R. Feingold, C. R. Thornfeldt, and P. M. Elias, “Optimization of physiological lipid mixtures for barrier repair,” J. Invest. Dermatol., vol. 106, no. 5, pp. 1096–1101, May 1996.
[21]     K. De Paepe, M. P. Derde, D. Roseeuw, and V. Rogiers, “Incorporation of ceramide 3B in dermatocosmetic emulsions: effect on the transepidermal water loss of sodium lauryl sulphate-damaged skin,” J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. JEADV, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 272–279, Jul. 2000.
[22]     K. De Paepe, P. Vandamme, M. P. Derde, D. Roseeuw, and V. Rogiers, “Body lotions enriched with skin identical lipids. A TEWL study of aged skin and SLS-induced scaly skin,” Euro Cosmet., vol. 7, pp. 38–45, 1999.
[23]     L. Rodrigues, P. A. da Silva, P. Pinto, N. Galego, N. Silva, and L. M. Pereira, “Identification of the in vivo topically applied ‘human-identical’ ceramides included in negatively charged liposomes,” Boll. Chim. Farm., vol. 137, no. 10, pp. 395–402, Nov. 1998.
[24]     S. L. Chamlin, J. Kao, I. J. Frieden, M. Y. Sheu, A. J. Fowler, J. W. Fluhr, M. L. Williams, and P. M. Elias, “Ceramide-dominant barrier repair lipids alleviate childhood atopic dermatitis: changes in barrier function provide a sensitive indicator of disease activity,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 198–208, Aug. 2002.
[25]     J. L. Sugarman and L. C. Parish, “Efficacy of a lipid-based barrier repair formulation in moderate-to-severe pediatric atopic dermatitis,” J. Drugs Dermatol. JDD, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1106–1111, Dec. 2009.
[26]     L. H. Kircik, J. Q. Del Rosso, and D. Aversa, “Evaluating Clinical Use of a Ceramide-dominant, Physiologic Lipid-based Topical Emulsion for Atopic Dermatitis,” J. Clin. Aesthetic Dermatol., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 34–40, Mar. 2011.
[27]     Z. D. Draelos, “The effect of ceramide-containing skin care products on eczema resolution duration,” Cutis, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 87–91, Jan. 2008.
[28]     E. Berardesca, M. Barbareschi, S. Veraldi, and N. Pimpinelli, “Evaluation of efficacy of a skin lipid mixture in patients with irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study,” Contact Dermatitis, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 280–285, Nov. 2001.
[29]     E. M. Zettersten, R. Ghadially, K. R. Feingold, D. Crumrine, and P. M. Elias, “Optimal ratios of topical stratum corneum lipids improve barrier recovery in chronologically aged skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., vol. 37, no. 3 Pt 1, pp. 403–408, Sep. 1997.
[30]    S. Karahatay, K. Thomas, S. Koybasi, C. E. Senkal, S. Elojeimy, X. Liu, J. Bielawski, T. A. Day, M. B. Gillespie, D. Sinha, J. S. Norris, Y. A. Hannun, and B. Ogretmen, “Clinical relevance of ceramide metabolism in the pathogenesis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): attenuation of C(18)-ceramide in HNSCC tumors correlates with lymphovascular invasion and nodal metastasis,” Cancer Lett., vol. 256, no. 1, pp. 101–111, Oct. 2007.
[31]     H. Wakita, Y. Tokura, H. Yagi, K. Nishimura, F. Furukawa, and M. Takigawa, “Keratinocyte differentiation is induced by cell-permeant ceramides and its proliferation is promoted by sphingosine,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 286, no. 6, pp. 350–354, 1994.
[32]     E. P. M. Grist, “An evaluation of United Kingdom environmental bovine spongiform encephalopathy risk assessment,” Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 152–159, Apr. 2005.
[33]     Y. A. Hannun and L. M. Obeid, “The Ceramide-centric universe of lipid-mediated cell regulation: stress encounters of the lipid kind,” J. Biol. Chem., vol. 277, no. 29, pp. 25847–25850, Jul. 2002.
[34]     C. C. Geilen, T. Wieder, and C. E. Orfanos, “Ceramide signalling: regulatory role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in human epidermis,” Arch. Dermatol. Res., vol. 289, no. 10, pp. 559–566, Sep. 1997.
[35]     Y. Uchida, W. M. Holleran, and P. M. Elias, “On the effects of topical synthetic pseudoceramides: comparison of possible keratinocyte toxicities provoked by the pseudoceramides, PC104 and BIO391, and natural ceramides,” J. Dermatol. Sci., vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 37–43, Jul. 2008.

Click here to download all available sample recipes in a RAR file

Download and unzip using WinZip or 7-Zip (Free)

Solubility: Add in oil phase and dissolve at 70℃
                  High speed mixer is required when amount is more than 0.5%
Suggested percentage:0.5% to 3%

It is recommended that Ceramides are used in combination withCholesterol NF and Natural Fatty Acids at a ratio of 3:1:1  ceramides, cholesterols, and free fatty acids.

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